- SIDS DOCK-Swedish Energy Agency Cooperation
- BUILDING CARIBBEAN CLIMATE RESILIENCE
- ABOUT THE SWEDISH ENERGY AGENCY
- THE SIDS DOCK PLATFORM
SIDS DOCK-Swedish Energy Agency (SEA) Pilot Project on Building Resilience to Climate Change in Islands through the Energy Sector: North-South Cooperation for Sustainable Energy Development in SIDS.
SIDS DOCK, the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Sustainable Energy and Climate Resilience Initiative, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Climate Change Centre (5Cs/CCCCC) and the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA) have formed a partnership to assist with the development of renewable energy in island states, and in particular, the role of renewable energy and energy efficiency and conservation (RE & EE&C) in building resilience to climate change in islands.
Under this cooperative agreement with the Swedish Energy Agency, a number of proposed activities have been identified in this programme conceptual stage.
Activity 1: Lay out a process for assessing the level of vulnerability of the regional energy sector to the impacts of climate change and potential consequences on the population and economy of the Caribbean Islands; and provide an appropriate methodology that can assist countries to undertake sustainable energy option comparisons that will inform decision making, including a definition of climate resilience for island communities and national economies. The potential countries identified are Barbados, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The project will be conducted in two working-phases – the first in which the conceptual framework and development and application of the methodology approach will be piloted. After recommendation by SIDS DOCK, the aim is to conduct the first case study on Grenada, in which the methodology approach will be tested.
Activity 2: Enhance understanding of how renewable energy and energy efficiency projects can help countries build climate resilience, as well as a review of the obstacles to greater deployment of renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency practices.
- With the input from the work carried out in Activity 1, identify key elements/characteristics of an energy sector that could enable maximum contributions to overall resilience from key sectors.
- Tie the result to initial identification of possible policies, instruments and measures for RE / EE that could contribute to a sustainable and resilient energy system and climate resilient economies, with the aim to identify incentives for actors to invest in RE and EE (in the respective national and regional markets).
Activity 3: Identify priority actions to make the energy sector a foundation for climate resilient economies within the context of ongoing regional activities such as the CARICOM Energy Policy and Caribbean Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy (C-SERMS), the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CCREEE), the Caribbean Development Bank’s recent energy policy; the 11th EDF (European Development Fund), and the US-CARICOM energy security initiative.
Activity 4: Plan to convene two regional workshops on renewable energy and energy efficiency for building climate resilience in Caribbean communities and national economies to share the information generated and to prepare a draft regional programme for building energy sector resilience to climate change.
Building Caribbean Climate Resilience
The Caribbean energy sector with few exceptions, has failed to provide energy services that allow the economies to be competitive in the global market, consequently, the economy of the island countries depend heavily on a few goods and services derived primarily from the environment. The dependence on a limited number of goods and services makes these small states economically vulnerable, which combined with a fragile environment increases the vulnerability of the regional population to the growing atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) and the expected impacts from climate change.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines resilience as the ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. In the context of the Caribbean, climate resilience means addressing issues related primarily to hydro-metrological events, food and energy security, and sea level rise. This requires building the population’s capacity to adapt to a different set of weather conditions which will be different from anything in the past.
Paradoxically, the islands of the Caribbean have vast renewable energy resources which remain severely underdeveloped in relation to the challenges facing the region, and whose utilization would address a major cause of energy sector vulnerability and provide a foundation for sustainable development. Low energy efficiency in the use of imported fuels, as measured by the unit of energy per unit of economic growth, shows significant potential feasible investments in energy efficiency. In the case of Caribbean SIDS, the need is also to use sustainable energy sources to reduce the vulnerability of the energy sector and build climate resilience. While there has been significant attention paid to the development of methodology and tools to help the energy sector identify least cost expansion options, and for adding renewable energy supply to reduce cost of imports, and efficiency practices that reduce cost of services, very little or no attention has been paid to how climate change is impacting the energy sector and what are the implications for the future.
While the vulnerability of a conventional liquid-fuelled energy sector operating in small island states is increasingly understood, there is limited understanding of the linkages between climate resilience and sustainable energy. For example, are all sustainable energy equal in building climate resilience? How should intermittent sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PVs) be contrasted against other options to see which is best for increasing climate resilience? As to be expected, due to limited investigation there are significant knowledge gaps. However, additional analytical tools are needed to help compare sustainable energy options in the national environment in which they will be implemented, including how to compare similar scale of investments in a solar PV project with energy storage to provide base load power, with one that is converting waste-to-energy which in addition to providing base load power has co-benefits, e.g., improvement in coastal environmental quality, local fertilizer production and increased protection of freshwater resources, and an additional income stream.
Analytical ranking of sustainable energy sources and systems for climate resilience is a new area of exploration but an essential one for Caribbean SIDS. A methodology that allows for inclusion of co-benefits consideration in elaborating the resulting improvements in resilience is needed to support decision making in a sustainable energy sector.
About the Swedish Energy Agency
The Swedish Energy Agency (SEA) is a government agency for national energy policy issues. The Agency’s headquarters are in Eskilstuna. The SEA works for the use of renewable energy, improved technologies, a smarter end-use of energy, and mitigation of climate change.
Mission To promote the development of Sweden’s energy system so that it will become ecologically and economically sustainable. This means that energy must be available at competitive prices and that energy generation must make the least possible impact on people and the environment. In simple words, a smarter use of energy.
The Agency works to ensure that energy matters are automatically taken into account in relevant social sectors.
- The Agency supports the achievement of the national climate targets.
- The Agency promotes an energy system that is economical on resources and energy efficient, and that uses an increasing proportion of renewable energy sources.
- The Agency works to ensure that there is a safe and reliable energy supply.
- The Agency works for efficient energy markets in which customers have a strong position.
- The Agency is a modern and efficient public authority in all respects.
- The Agency is an attractive employer whose employees are given good development opportunities in a sound working environment.
To a large extent the activities of the Swedish Energy Agency are related to work conducted on the international arena. The collaborative international activities of the Swedish Energy Agency cover several areas of work, comprise an extensive part of the Agency’s operations and are carried out bilaterally and multilaterally, within regional as well as multilateral cooperation. Most of our international work is carried out as part of our everyday tasks to implement and promote national and EU-legislation. Some of it is also carried out to directly support the Government offices, such as when representing Sweden in international organisations together with or on behalf of different ministries. Some of the international organisations/cooperation that the Swedish Energy Agency is actively involved in (apart from the EU) is:
- Meeting the Swedish Kyoto commitment through the use of international mechanisms such as emissions trading and CDM/JI, including capacity building on this
- International negotiations on climate change
- The International Energy Agency
- The International Renewable Energy Agency
- The Clean Energy Ministerial
- The Nordic Council of Ministers and the Nordic Council
- The European Energy Network, EnR (a voluntary network for National Energy Agencies in Europe)
- Bilateral agreements with other countries such as China, India, Russia, the USA and the United Arab Emirates.
Island Energy for Island Life 2033
SIDS DOCK Objectives
1. Assist SIDS transition to a sustainable energy sector, by increasing energy efficiency and development of renewable energy
2. Providing a vehicle for mobilizing financial and technical resources to catalyse clean economic growth
3. Provide SIDS with a mechanism for connecting with the global carbon market and taking advantage of the resource transfer possibilities that will be afforded
4. Provide a mechanism to help SIDS generate the financial resources to invest in climate change adaptation
Aimed at the deliberate transformation of SIDS into a low carbon economy by 2033:
- Generate at least 50 per cent of their electric power from renewable resources
- Decrease petroleum used for transportation by 25 per cent
- Increase energy efficiency by 25 per cent (over a 2005 baseline)