Grenada 239452475(FINAL)

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The State of Grenada consists of three islands- Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique which form the southern end of the Windward Islands.   Formerly colonized for many years, first by the French and then by the British, the islands of Grenada still retain traces of these European influences in their culture, architecture and place names. The Capital, St. George’s, is located on the south west coast of Grenada.  It is the seat of government and the main commercial centre.

The State of Grenada lies between Trinidad and Tobago to the south and St. Vincent and the Grenadines to the north in the Eastern Caribbean.  It is the southern-most of the Windward Islands.  It is 100 miles north of Venezuela, 158 miles south west of Barbados.

Grenada is 12 miles (18km) wide and 21 miles (34km) long, and covers a land area of 120 sq. miles (440 sq. km), Carriacou is 13 sq. miles (34 sq. km) and Petite Martinique is 486 acres (194 hectares).

Grenada is divided into 6 parishes:

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Grenada’s volcanic origin has produced topography of great beauty and environmental variety, ranging from mountainous rainforest to dry lowlands and coastal mangroves. The highest point is Mt. St. Catherine at 2,757 ft. and ancient volcanic craters can be found in the central massif.

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This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada—a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea—three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique. The 2015 electricity rates in Grenada are $0.34 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), in line with the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh. Like many island nations, Grenada is almost 100% reliant on imported fossil fuels for electricity generation, leaving it vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations that directly impact the cost of electricity.

Electricity production: 201.4 million kWh
Electricity consumption: 178.4 million kWh
Carbon dioxide emissions: 269,000 Mt
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Overview of the SIDS DOCK-Swedish Energy Agency Mission to Grenada[1]

High-level discussions focused primarily on resilience in the context of the energy sector and transition to a low carbon economy and the energy sector’s integrated role in the water, waste management, agriculture, and tourism and transportation sectors. The Hon. Prime Minister was very clear in his agreement with the proposed definition of resilience as noted in the Concept Paper, and explained that based on his experience as Prime Minister during Hurricane Ivan in 2004[2], the ability to recover was most important, as well as the timeframe and the infrastructure.

During the meeting with one Government Minister on the impending Electricity Act, and GRENLEC, the SEA agreed to review the act and provide recommendations. The Prime Minister also agreed to have the SEA review the Government’s USD 25 million Sewage Project proposal for St. George’s. The electricity provider (Grenada Electricity Company Ltd. – GRENLEC) elicited the most comments from all stakeholders who repeatedly spoke passionately about the negative effects the high electricity prices are having on their daily livelihoods and are hoping that the new bill will see a lowering of prices. The electricity provider has a monopoly over electricity generation, transmission and distribution until 2073. In addition to some deficiencies in the tariff-setting mechanism, the monopoly over electricity generation has thwarted entrance into the renewable electricity market.

Similar to several Caribbean countries, Grenada entered into an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in 2013, to restructure its debt; public debt reached about 110 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the end of 2013, which leaves very little room for addressing social challenges. Electricity tariffs are among the highest in the world, reflecting the small scale of production and the monopoly position of the electricity provider, including in the market for renewable electricity generation. Government has introduced a pilot programme, “Energy for the Poor,” targeting vulnerable persons, where 200 houses are to renovated and installed with power and provision of energy.

Water scarcity, poor waste and sewerage management, high transportation costs, underutilised agriculture lands and a poorly coordinated tourism sector characterise some of the major challenges facing the targeted sectors in the study. Climate change and sea level rise are projected to adversely impact these sectors in multiple and integrated ways. The lack of land, water, waste management, and transportation polices are seen as major barriers – the government is currently revising its Tourism Master Plan (1996) and launched a campaign in 2014, “Pure Grenada – Isle of Spice,” its new destination brand that is beginning to reap positive results in tourist arrivals. This positive development will most likely add more pressure to the water and waste management systems on the south coast, and further degrade the harbour and the world-renowned Carenage, St. George’s lively waterfront promenade, winding around the inner harbour, and Grand Anse Beach, the location of most of the hotels.

The main message to stakeholders was that there are SIDS-Appropriate Technologies that can help replace diesel fuel for renewable fuels, improve access and availability of potable water, improve proper management and monetisation of solid and liquid waste including through heat conversion, and improved competitiveness of agriculture and small farmers in particular (e.g., increased yields and reduced waste). What is required is the proper policies, tools and enabling environment.

[1] See 4-8 Grenada Mission Meeting Notes, 25 May 2015

[2] Hurricane Ivan (September 2004) caused catastrophic damage in Grenada (at about 150 percent of GDP). The remainder of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and the wider Caribbean were much less affected. In terms of damages and affected population, this was the largest storm in the Caribbean region in the last decade. Another hurricane, Emily, struck the island in 2005